Researchers and institutions involved in shape computation
or the NSF/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation (as of April 1999)

(a listing in progress)
Researcher Department Institutition Area Email
Manish Agarwal Computational Design Lab Carnegie Mellon University The engineering and consumer product applications of grammars
Erik K. Antonsson Engineering Design Research Laboratory California Institute of Technology Applying computation to the preliminary phase of engineering design
Ken Brown Department of Computing Science University of Aberdeen Intelligent assistance for synthesis problems,
Jonathan Cagan Department of Mechanical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University, theory, methods, and tools for design conceptualization
Donald Carter General Motors Corporation
Scott Chase, Department of Architectural and Design Science University of Sydney, design grammars
Hau Hing Chau School of Mechanical Engineering University of Leeds the mechanical applications of shape grammars to industrial design
Birgul Colakoglu School of Architecture and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Yildiz Technical University - Istanbul practical application of shape grammars and their use in architectural design education
Alan de Pennington Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Leeds
Jose P. Duarte School of Architecture and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology customizing housing design for mass production
Chris Earl Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering University of Newcastle
Athanassios Economou College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology Applications of shape grammars in architectural design
James L. Elshoff Vehicle Analysis and Dynamics Lab General Motors R&D and Planning applying shape grammars to brand character design
Susan Finger Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Carnegie Mellon University
Ulrich Flemming Architecture Carnegie Mellon University
James Gips Computer Science Boston College
Steven Griffin National Science Foundation Division of Information, Robotics and Intelligent Systems
Terry Knight School of Architecture and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology Theoretical and practical aspects
Ramesh Krishnamurti Department of Architecture Carnegie Mellon University Computer implementations and configurational design
Andrew Li School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Design education
Lionel March University of California Los Angeles Architectonics
David Marimont Xerox PARC Computer vision
Jay McCormack Department of Mechanical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Engineering applications of shape grammars
William Mitchell School of Architecture and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology Architecture in the digital age
Kevin Otto Center for Innovation in Product Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Douglas Sery The MIT Press Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Kristina Shea Department of Engineering University of Cambridge developing structural grammars, and creating engineering design tools based on grammars
George Stiny School of Architecture and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology theoretical aspects
Mark Tapia School of Architecture and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology Computer Implementations

  • Manish Agarwal, Computational Design Lab, Carnegie Mellon

    University Manish Agarwal is a Ph.D. candidate in the department of Mechanical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. His research is in the area of design theory and methodology including product design, qualitative optimization and formal design techniques. He has been involved in developing shape grammar based design representations for a number of application domains. Manish received his B.Tech. from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India in 1995 and his M.S. from Carnegie Mellon University in 1997, both in Mechanical Engineering.

  • Erik K. Antonsson, Engineering Design Research Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

    Erik K. Antonsson received the B.S. degree (with distinction) from Cornell University (1976), and the S.M. (1978) and Ph.D. (1982) degrees from MIT., Cambridge, MA, all in Mechanical Engineering. He was an Instructor and a Research Associate in the Mechanical Engineering Department at MIT. in 1982. In 1983 he joined the Mechanical Engineering faculty at the University of Utah, as an Assistant Professor. In 1984 he became the Technical Director of the Pediatric Mobility and Gait Laboratory, and an Assistant in Bioengineering (Orthopedic Surgery), at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He also simultaneously joined the faculty of the Harvard University Medical School as an Assistant Professor of Orthopedics (Bioengineering).

    In September 1984 he joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology as an Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and organized the Engineering Design Research Laboratory. In June, 1990, he was promoted to the rank of Associate Professor, and since January, 1997 he has held the rank of Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Caltech. He teaches courses in engineering design, computer aided engineering design, machine design, mechanical systems, and kinematics. His research interests include application of computation to the preliminary phase of engineering design, representing and manipulating imprecision.

  • Ken Brown, Department of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

    Ken Brown is a lecturer in the Computing Science Department at the University of Aberdeen. He received a BSc in Mathematics from Glasgow University, an MSc in Logic from Manchester University, and a PhD in AI and Engineering from Bristol University. He has held post-doctoral research appointments at Bristol and at Carnegie Mellon University.

    His main interest is in providing intelligent assistants for synthesis problems, including design, configuration, planning and scheduling. He has published a number of papers describing grammatical systems for generative design and manufacturing planning, including automated methods of interpretation and control of the generation. He has worked for a number of years with the Rover Group, and is now developing applications in the oil industry.


  • Jonathan Cagan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University

    Jonathan Cagan is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, with appointments in Biomedical Engineering and Computer Science. His research, teaching, and consulting are in the area of design theory, methodology, automation, and practice. He received his B.S. in 1983 and M.S. in 1985 from the University of Rochester, and his Ph.D. in 1990 from the University of California at Berkeley, all in Mechanical Engineering. Dr. Cagan is the recipient of the National Science Foundation's NYI Award and the Society of Automotive Engineer's Ralph R. Teetor Award for Education. He is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi, and Sigma Xi National Honor Societies, and the ASME, AAAI, SAE, and AAEE Professional Societies. Dr. Cagan is a registered Professional Engineer.

  • Donald H. Carter, General Motors Corporation

    Donald Carter received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Louisiana State University in 1972. He has held academic positions at Lawrence Technological University, Detroit Institute of Technology. Currently pursuing a MBA in Design Management from the University of Westminster, London England, his current responsibility is to formulate strategic design applications that enhance the portfolio and brand character studio processes. This entails developing interactive interfaces between large screen displays, multiply designer workstations and corporate staffs; plus assess shape computation technology in automating 2D & 3D brand character cues and instrument cluster layouts. He is interested in the symbolic link between words and images. For the past two years, he had the responsibility for planning and implementing the renovation of General Motors Design Center facilities to accommodate the VLE process. For twenty years, he has been involved in formulating strategic, business and process development plans for GM-Design Center and General Motors. He has conceptualized and developed applications ranging from three-dimensional graphics, project management tools, laser scanning devices, and virtual reality. In addition, he has been involved with Architecture and Facilities Management for twenty-five years as a consultant to various architectural and computer companies throughout the mid-west and southeast United States.

  • Scott Chase, Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney

    Scott Chase is a lecturer in Design Computing in the Department of Architectural and Design Science and is affiliated with the Key Centre for Design Computing and Cognition at the University of Sydney. He received a BS (1978) in Art and Design from MIT, and an MA (1987) and PhD (1996) in Architecture from UCLA. Following receipt of the PhD, he was a National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

    Since the mid 1980's, he has worked in various capacities in the areas of AEC CAD and computer graphics development at Bechtel Civil, IBM, and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. He has also been a researcher on the EDM project in product modeling at UCLA and the Technical University of Delft.

    His research interests lie in design grammars, logic based paradigms for design modelling, and standards development for design data models. A current project concerns the development of user interaction models for grammar based design systems.


  • Hau Hing Chau, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds

    University of LeedsHau Hing Chau gained his degree in mechanical engineering with first class honours in 1996 at the University of Leeds, and was awarded the IMechE Project Prize in the same year. He was the best second year student in the course in 1993. He is now a PhD student at School of Mechanical Engineering at University of Leeds, and currently holds an Overseas Research Award, a Tetley and Lupton Scholarship, and a Keyworth Scholarship.

    Chau has seven years of experience in design and development of consumer audio products mostly at Sound Fair Electronics Co Ltd in Hong Kong. He led a team of six mechanical engineers for four years and co-managed a 22-people engineering department during 1992--94.

    His research interests are in the mechanical applications of shape grammars to industrial design and computational geometry.


  • Birgul Colakolgu, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Birgul Colakolgu is Ph.D. students in Design and Computation program in School of Architecture and Planning at MIT. She holds teaching position in Yildiz Technical University and is currently on leave for her P.h.D study. She received her Bacheolor and Smarch degrees in architecture from Yildiz Technical University.

    Her current work focuses on the uses of shape grammar method for interpolations in historic settlements. She is looking for answers "how can shape grammar method be incorporated into design process for interpolations in historical settlements and in architectural design studio education.


  • Alan de Pennington, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds

    Alan de Pennington studied at UMIST, receiving his B.Sc. (1965), M.Sc. (1967) and Ph.D. (1970) from the University of Manchester. Two years were spent working in the Production Automation Group of Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. He was appointed Professor of Computer of Aided Engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Leeds in 1984. Memberships of national committees include the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Committee of DTI (Department of Trade and Industry/SERC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) between 1991-94.

    He co-founded the UK CADCAM Data Exchange Technical Centre (CADDETC) in 1986. He has served as Chairman and a member of a number of IMechE (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Committees.

    Over the 17 years between 1980-97, his research work has been carried out in conjunction with manufacturing companies with support from the Research Councils. It has covered geometric modeling, involvement in an Alvey Large Scale Demonstrator, Design to Product, Information Support Systems for Design and Manufacture and Exploiting Product and Manufacturing Models in Simultaneous Engineering.

    As Program Director for Computer Integrated Engineering for the National Science Foundation in Washington DC during 1986/1987, he contributed towards the establishment of a new Division of Design, Manufacturing and Computer Integrated Engineering.

    In 1993 he was awarded the OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) in the Queens Birthday Honours for service to the manufacturing industry. In April 1993 he was appointed Engineering at the University of Leeds. This is an inter-disciplinary research institute with five collaborating departments.

    His research interests include: modeling in the design process, product data engineering and enterprise integration. Emerging research topics include the interplay between process and the higher levels of abstraction needed in design technology.


  • Christopher Francis Earl, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Newcastle

    Christopher Francis Earl gained a BA degree in Mathematics from Oxford University, followed by an M.Sc in General Relativity in Roger Penrose's group studying new descriptions of the geometry of space time. At the Open University he studied for his Ph.D. under Lionel March on configurational descriptions of designs. Subsequently he held Post Doctoral Research positions and a Faculty appointment (1982-85) to the Department of Design at the Open University, conducting research on the kinematic design of mechanisms and robot manipulators using generative methods. This research continued with applications to Automated Manufacture, Assembly and Construction at University of West of England at Bristol, where Chris led the Manufacturing and Design division in the Faculty of Engineering. Application of parallel computing to intelligent manufacturing was a particular theme of this work. Since 1991 at Newcastle University, in both the Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering and Newcastle Engineering Design Centre, Chris has concentrated on shape, design descriptions, associated computational processes, and planning. Currently he is developing interdisciplinary work with the Departments of Planning and Management. He has led, or contributed to, several Research Council, European Union and Industry sponsored research projects in Design, particularly in the areas of Geometric Features, Shape, and Generative Design


  • Athanassios Economou,Architecture Program, College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology

    Athanassios Economou is assistant Professor in the College of Architecture at Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. Dr. Economou earned his Diploma in Architecture (First Professional Degree) at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece (NTUA) in 1990, his Masters of Architecture (Second Professional Degree) at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles (USC) in 1992, and his Ph.D in Architecture at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1997. His doctorate studies focused in the study of symmetries of 3-dimensional space and their applications in visual and sound design systems.

    Dr. Economou is currently teaching graduate architectural studios and a series of elective classes in design and computation. The work of his graduate studios at Ga. Tech has received various awards and honorable mentions and has been exhibited and published. The classes on computational design focus on shape grammars and spatial transformations and provide a common foundation for projects ranging from architectural projects to java applications.

    Dr. Economou's research interests involve the application of 3-dimensional shape grammars in design practice.


  • James L. Elshoff ,Vehicle Analysis and Dynamics Lab, General Motors R&D and Planning

    James L. Elshoff is Principal Research Scientist at General Motors R&D Center. He received a B.A. (1966) in Applied Mathematics from Miami University, and an M.S. (1969) and Ph.D. (1970) in Computer Science from Pennsylvania State University. He has been with GM R&D since 1970. He has also taught at Oakland University and the University of Detroit.

    At GM R&D, he spent the first 11 years in the area of software engineering. His focus for the next 9 years was on-board microprocessor software development and validation. In the early 1990's he managed a series of projects developing applications of neural networks and fuzzy logic. Since 1996 he has led a number of projects on computer graphics and visualization.

    Although general area of grammars is not new to him, shape grammars are. He is particularly interested in the potential application of shape grammars to brand character design.


  • Alan de Pennington, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds

    Alan de Pennington studied at UMIST, receiving his B.Sc. (1965), M.Sc. (1967) and Ph.D. (1970) from the University of Manchester. Two years were spent working in the Production Automation Group of Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. He was appointed Professor of Computer of Aided Engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Leeds in 1984. Memberships of national committees include the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Committee of DTI (Department of Trade and Industry/SERC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) between 1991-94.

    He co-founded the UK CADCAM Data Exchange Technical Centre (CADDETC) in 1986. He has served as Chairman and a member of a number of other IMechE (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Committees.

    Over the 17 years between 1980-97, his research work has been carried out in conjunction with manufacturing companies with support from the Research Councils. It has covered geometric modeling, involvement in an Alvey Large Scale Demonstrator, Design to Product, Information Support Systems for Design and Manufacture and Exploiting Product and Manufacturing Models in Simultaneous Engineering.

    As Program Director for Computer Integrated Engineering for the National Science Foundation in Washington DC during 1986/1987, he contributed towards the establishment of a new Division of Design, Manufacturing and Computer Integrated Engineering.

    In 1993 he was awarded the OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) in the Queens Birthday Honours for service to the manufacturing industry. In April 1993 he was appointed Engineering at the University of Leeds. This is an inter-disciplinary research institute with five collaborating departments.

    His research interests include: modeling in the design process, product data engineering and enterprise integration. Emerging research topics include the interplay between process and the higher levels of abstraction needed in design technology.


  • Jose P. Duarte, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Jose P. Duarte is a Ph.D. candidate and Teaching Assistant at MIT. He has practiced as an architect and worked as a Research Assistant for the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal. He received his "Licenciatura" in Architecture from Lisbon Technical University, and a S.M.Arch.S. from MIT.

    He has done pioneering work on linking computer implementations of shape grammars with rapid prototyping systems for the automatic generation of designs and physical models. He has developed a shape grammar for Siza's housing schemes at Malagueira and he is now working on its computer implementation. The goal of his current research is the generation of designs that fit given design contexts. He is interested in the use of shape grammars to customize housing design for mass production.


  • Susan Finger, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University

    Susan Finger is on the faculty of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at Carnegie Mellon University. She is also affiliated with the Engineering Design Research Center, the Robotics Institute, and the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Dr. Finger received her B.A. in Astronomy from the University of Pennsylvania in 1972, her M.A. in Operations Research from the University of Pennsylvania in 1974, and her Ph.D. in Electric Power Systems through Civil Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1981. She was on the faculty in Manufacturing Engineering at Boston University and was a Visiting Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering in the Laboratory for Manufacturing Productivity at MIT. In 1985, she went to the National Science Foundation as the Program Director for a new research program in Design Theory and Methodology. In 1987, she joined the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon where she was a member of the research faculty until the fall of 1991. She serves on numerous advisory boards and review panels and, with John Dixon, is a founder and Co-editor-in-Chief of the journal Research in Engineering Design . Dr. Finger's research interests include representation languages for designs and integration of design and manufacturing concerns.


  • Ulrich Flemming, Department of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University

    Ulrich Flemming received his professional degree in architecture from the Technical University of Berlin, where he worked in close association with O. M. Ungers, whose Berlin office he managed for one year before joining the graduate Master's program at MIT. He returned to Berlin for his Ph.D. in computational architectural design, which introduced a formal representation of rectangular floor plans that has become widely used since.

    He has been living and working in the U.S since the mid-seventies, first at SUNY Buffalo, later - and to the present day - at CMU in Pittsburgh. He has held guest appointments at UCLA and the Technical University of Denmark.

    He has been teaching professional courses, especially design studios, at each of the universities where he held permanent appointments. At CMU, he succeeded Chuck Eastman in leading the research group and Ph. D. concentration in computational design. He became associated with the Engineering Design Center (EDRC), where he lead the «form/function synthesis thrust» and generally participated in interdisciplinary research.

    His research was initially focussed on generative design systems, where he made contributions not only to the geometry of layouts, but also to the application of shape grammars to the analysis of corpora of designs in that early phase where this applicability needed to be established. His research has since branched out to include knowledge-based design systems (including case-based design), integrated design systems, design databases, design space navigation, and human/computer interaction in design and drafting. This branching out has been motivated not only by intellectual curiosity, but also by the practical necessities that come with working in an externally funded research program. He has published widely in all of these areas.


  • James Gips, Computer Science Department, Boston College

    James Gips received an S.B. from MIT in 1967. At MIT he worked on three projects on the generation and recognition of shapes with George Stiny, a fellow undergraduate. He received an M.S. In Computer Science from Stanford in 1968. From 1968 through 1970 he worked at the National Institutes of Health. In 1970 he and George Stiny spent three months in Los Angeles developing the idea of a shape grammar. The resulting paper, «Shape Grammars and the Algorithmic Specification of Painting and Sculpture», was presented at IFIPS Congress '71 , the major international conference in Computer Science, in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, where it was awarded the prize for «Best Submitted Paper».

    In 1974 he received a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford. His dissertation, Shape Grammars and their Uses , was published by Birkhaüser Verlag in 1975. From 1974 through 1976 he held an appointment at the Department of Biomathematics in the School of Medicine at UCLA. During that time he worked with George Stiny developing ideas in aesthetics and design. The resulting book, Algorithmic Aesthetics: Computer Models for Criticism and Design in the Arts, was published by University of California Press in 1978 and received the Alpha Sigma Nu Book Award.

    Since 1976 Professor Gips has been on the faculty of the Computer Science Department at Boston College. His current research involves the design and implementation of new technologies for use by people with profound physical disabilities. He is the principal inventor of EagleEyes, a technology that allows a person to control the cursor on the screen of the computer through five electrodes attached to the face. Two dozen children who are unable to voluntarily move any parts of their body below their neck and are unable to speak are using EagleEyes to control the computer by moving their eyes and head. EagleEyes was a finalist in the 1994 Discover magazine Technological Innovation of the Year award and has been featured in the New York Times, the Times of London, the Los Angeles Times, the Disney channel, and other media.


  • Steve Griffin, Division of Information, Robotics and Intelligent Systems, National Science Foundation

    Stephen M. Griffin is a Program Manager in the Division of Information, Robotics and Intelligent Systems at the National Science Foundation (NSF). He is currently Program Director of the Digital Libraries Initiative, sponsored jointly with the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

    Prior to his current assignment, he served in several research divisions, including the Divisions of Chemistry and Advanced Scientific Computing, the Office of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, and staff offices of the Director of the NSF. His responsibilities included program planning, development, analysis and assessment. He has initiated numerous activities directed at building topical research communities, and support and coordination for new areas of interdisciplinary research.

    Mr. Griffin has been active in the Federal High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC), authoring and editing HPCC publication material and serving as Executive Secretary of the Information Infrastructure Technologies and Applications Working Group.

    His educational background includes degrees in Chemical Engineering and Information Systems Technology. He has additional graduate education in organizational behavior and development and the philosophy of science. His research interests are in topics related to interdisciplinary communication.


  • Terry Knight, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Terry Knight received a B.F.A. from the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the Architecture and Urban Design program at UCLA. Her graduate work at UCLA focused on shape grammars. In her Ph.D. of 1986, she developed a model for describing stylistic change and innovation in design through transformations of grammars. This work was elaborated on in her recent book Transformations in Design .

    From 1988 to 1995, she was a faculty member in the Architecture and Urban Design program at UCLA. She is currently an Associate Professor with tenure in the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT.

    Ms. Knight has published numerous papers on grammars. She developed color grammars, a generalization of shape grammars which incorporates non-compositional aspects of designs. Her recent work examines the practical and theoretical issues involved in implementing shape grammars and color grammars in design practice.


  • Ramesh Krishnamurti, Department of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University

    Ramesh Krishnamurti read Electrical Engineering at the University of Madras and Computer Science at (what is now) the University of Canberra, Australia graduating with honours. He was admitted to the graduate program in Systems Design at the University of Waterloo, Canada, earning his Ph.D. in 1980.

    In 1978 at the invitation of Lionel March, he went to The Open University's Centre for Configurational Studies where he worked primarily on spatial enumeration problems and shape grammar implementation. In 1984, at Aart Bijl's invitation, he went to the University of Edinburgh's EdCAAD group to work on the application of artificial intelligence to architectural design and the integration of graphics and natural language. In 1988, he briefly left academia to work at Bolt Beranek and Newman (Scotland) on semantic modeling and war game simulation. In September 1989 he joined Carnegie Mellon University where he is currently a Professor in Architecture.

    He was a project reviewer (1986-89) of the European Strategic Programme for Information Technology (ESPRIT). He has been a regular reviewer for the journal Planning and Design. He is a member of the editorial advisory board for Languages of Design and is the Regional Editor (Americas) of the international journal Building and Environment.


  • Andrew Li, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Andrew Li is interested in explaining the wood frame construction system of the twelfth-century Chinese building manual Yingzao fashi to modern designers. This involves two main tasks. The first is to characterize the knowledge contained in the text. The other is to do it in a way that makes sense to designers, in fact to discover what such a "designerly" approach is. Shape grammar provides a way of approaching both tasks formally.

    He has an L.Mus. with distinction in piano performance from McGill University, an A.B. cum laude in East Asian languages and civilizations from Harvard College, and an M.Arch. from the Harvard University Graduate School of Design. He studied Chinese architectural history at the Nanjing Institute of Technology (now Southeast University) as a student in the CanadaÐChina exchange program. He worked as an architect in Boston and taught architecture at Tunghai University, Taiwan. He is now a Ph.D. candidate in design and computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an associate professor of architecture at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.


  • Lionel March, University of California Los Angeles

    On the personal recommendation of Alan Turing, Lionel March was admitted to Magdalene College, University of Cambridge, to read mathematics under Dennis Babbage. There he eventually gained a first class degree in mathematics and architecture. In the early sixties, he was awarded an Harkness Fellowship of the Commonwealth Fund at the Joint Center for Urban Studies, Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He returned to Cambridge and joined Sir Leslie Martin and Sir Colin Buchanan in preparing a plan for a national and government center for Whitehall. He was the first Director of the Centre for Land Studies, Cambridge University. As founding Chairman of the Board of the private computer- aided design company, Applied Research of Cambridge (later owned by McDonnell Douglas), he and his colleagues were among the first contributors to the «Cambridge Phenomenon» -- the dissemination of Cambridge scholarship into high-tech industries. In 1978, he was awarded the Doctor of Science degree for mathematical and computational studies related to contemporary architectural and urban problems.

    Before coming to Los Angeles, he was Rector and Vice-Provost of the Royal College of Art, London. During his Rectorship, he served as a Governor of Imperial College of Science and Technology. He has held full Professorships in Systems Engineering at the University of Waterloo, Ontario; and in Design Technology at The Open University, Milton Keynes. At The Open University, as Chair, he doubled the faculty in Design and established the Centre for Configurational Studies. He can to UCLA In 1984. He was Chair of the Architecture and Urban Design program from 1985-91. He is currently a Professor in Design and Computation, School of the Arts and Architecture. He was a member of UCLA's Council on Academic Personnel from 1993, and its chair for 1995-96.

    He is General Editor of Cambridge Architectural and Urban Studies (1972 - ), and Founding Editor of the journal Planning and Design (1974 - ). Among the books he has authored and edited are: The Geometry of Environment, Urban Space and Structures, The Architecture of Form, and R. M. Schindler: Composition and Construction. He has published a companion volume to Sir Rudolf Wittkower's Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism entitled Architectonics of Humanism avaiable through John Wiley & Sons, Academic Press.


  • David Marimont, Xerox PARC

    David Marimont received an A.B. from Princeton in Economics (1975), an M.S. from Stanford in Computer Science (1980), and a Ph.D. from Stanford in Electrical Engineering (1986). His dissertation was in the area of computer vision; it developed techniques to estimate the spatial relationship between the camera and objects in the scene from one or more images. He spent 1986-87 in the Perception Group of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center, 1987-88 in the Robotics Department of Philips Laboratories in Briarcliff Manor, New York, and since 1988 has been at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in Palo Alto, California.

    Since his dissertation, Dr. Marimont's research has primarily been in various areas related to image analysis, including image sequence analysis, color science, image representation, and computational geometry. More recently, however, he has been working on visualization, user interface design, document layout analysis, and document collection analysis.


  • Jay McCormack, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University


    Jay McCormack is a Masters degree student at Carnegie Mellon University. With his advisor Jon Cagan, he shares an interest in the engineering applications of shape grammars.

  • William J. Mitchell , School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    William J. Mitchell is Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences and Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT. He also serves as Architectural Adviser to the President of MIT

    Among his publications are
    City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn MIT Press, 1995)
    The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era MIT Press, 1992)
    The Logic of Architecture: Design, Computation, and Cognition MIT Press, 1990)
    The Poetics of Gardens, with Charles W. Moore and WilliamTurnbull Jr. MIT Press, 1988)
    Computer-Aided Architectural Design Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977

    His most recent book is the edited volume High Technology and Low-Income Communities, with Donald A. Schon and Bish Sanyal (MIT Press, 1999). And his E-Topia: Our Town Tomorrow, which explores the new forms and functions of cities in the digital electronic era, will be published by the MIT Press in Fall 1999.

    Before coming to MIT, he was the G. Ware and Edythe M. Travelstead Professor of Architecture and Director of the Master in Design Studies Program at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He previously served as Head of the Architecture/Urban Design Program at UCLAÕs Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning, and he has also taught at Yale, Carnegie-Mellon, and Cambridge Universities. In Spring 1999 he will be visiting the University of Virginia as Thomas Jefferson Professor.

    He holds a BArch from the University of Melbourne, MED from Yale University, and MA from Cambridge. He is a Fellow of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects, a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a recipient of honorary doctorates from the University of Melbourne and the New Jersey Institute of Technology. In 1997 he was awarded the annual Appreciation Prize of the Architectural Institute of Japan for his "achievements in the development of architectural design theory in the information age as well as worldwide promotion of CAD education."


  • Kevin Otto, Center for Innovation in Product Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Kevin Otto is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at MIT. He earned an B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from MIT, and a Ph.D. from Caltech.

    Professor Otto has explored most all areas of mechanical product design research, and has worked industrially on several product development projects. Notable research includes uncertainty modeling to support preliminary design decision making, including computational models, group decisions, and integration of design and manufacturing. He is looking for answers to questions about using grammars to transform a product concept, product specifications into generated product layouts to which equations can be attached for analysis and optimization purposes.


  • Douglas Sery, The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Douglas Sery is an editor at the MIT Press. He is editing George Stiny's forthcoming book on shape.

  • Kristina Shea, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge

    Kristina Shea is a Lecturer in Engineering Design at Cambridge. Previously, she held a post-doctoral research appointment at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. She received her Ph.D, M.S. and B.S. all from the Mechanical Engineering Department at Carnegie Mellon University.

    Dr. Shea's thesis work involved the use of grammars and stochastic search to generate essays of spatially innovative, but functional, planar and three-dimensional discrete structures. The resulting structures reflected purposes of structural efficiency, economy, and elegance. Her current interests include applying a similar approach to spatial and functional layout of mechanical systems, developing more specific structural grammars, and creating engineering design tools based on grammars. She's especially interested in using grammars to generate innovative designs and discover intriguing relations between form and function.


  • George Stiny, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    George Stiny is Professor of Design and Computation at MIT. He has held academic positions at UCLA (Professor of Design and Professor of Architecture and Urban Design), at the Royal College of Art (Dean), and at the Open University. He received an S.B. in Humanities and Engineering from MIT, and an M.S. and Ph.D. from UCLA in Engineering.

    Professor Stiny pioneered the field of shape grammars, opening numerous lines of research in shape computation, design, and aesthetic and stylistic analysis. His current work focuses on the uses of ambiguity in computations with shapes, and on the extension of the shape grammar formalism to embrace a multiplicity of interacting descriptive devices. He is looking for answers to questions about the relationships among shape, structure, and physical and intentional properties.


  • Mark Tapia, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Taking a circuitous route to academia, Mark Tapia received his B.S. in Mathematics from Stanford University in 1969 and an M.Sc. in Computer Science from the University of Toronto in 1971. He then worked in a variety of positions in academia and industry, focusing on the concerns of the end-user and acting as a liaison between technical issues and user needs, advising users on computer systems, developing software for student use, guiding the technical issues and interface issues of pilot projects to provide electronic mail in the financial and academic sectors, and managing a large software project to provide real-time public transit information to riders. Deciding that his training needed to be updated and challenged, he returned to the University of Toronto full time to test the waters. After completing four graduate level courses, he was accepted as a Ph.D. candidate in the Computer Science Department where he pursued his interest in human computer interaction, receiving his Ph.D. in 1996.

    A search for a topic combining an interest in the architecture and computer science revealed an article by Ulrich Flemming on shape grammars and Queen Anne houses. Spurred by this article and others, he visited UCLA where he met with George Stiny at the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design. With George's encouragement, he conducted research as a Visiting Scholar at UCLA. The dissertation treated the computer implementation of shape grammars systems as a complete system, addressing the problems of representation and computation, and presentation and selection.

    With his specific interest in shape grammars and his more general interest in the philosophy and practice of design computation, he is teaching a course in architecture at M.I.T. where he is a Rsearch Scientist. He has also taught courses in design and architecture as a Visiting Assistant Professor in the Design Department at the UCLA. From 1996-1997, he was a Visiting Assistant Researcher in Design and Computation; from 1997-1998 he was an Assistant Rsearcher in the professional research series.